5 Effective Methods for Mastering Factorial Calculations in Java


Factorial Calculations in Java are an essential skill set for any programmer dealing with algorithms and data structures. A firm grasp of factorial calculations can pave the way to solving complex programming challenges.

A Brief on Factorial: Mathematical Context

A factorial, denoted as n!, of any non-negative integer n, is the product of all positive integers up to n. To illustrate, the factorial of 5 (5!) is calculated as 12345 = 120.

The Fundamentals of Factorial in Java

There are various strategies available in Java to perform factorial calculations, each with its unique benefits and drawbacks.

Method 1: Employing Iterative Approach

An iterative approach uses a straightforward for loop to compute the factorial.

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int num = 5;
        long factorial = 1;
        for(int i = 1; i <= num;   i)
            factorial *= i;
        System.out.printf("Factorial of %d = %d", num, factorial);

Method 2: The Recursive Approach

Recursion is another common technique for executing factorial calculations in Java.

public class Main {
    public static long factorial(int n) {
        if (n == 0)
          return 1;
          return(n * factorial(n-1));
    public static void main(String args[]) {
        int i;
        long fact = 1;
        int number = 5;   // number to calculate factorial
        fact = factorial(number);
        System.out.println("Factorial of " number " is: " fact);

Factorial Calculations in Java

Method 3: Utilizing Stream API

The Stream API, introduced in Java 8, is another effective method for factorial calculations.

import java.util.stream.IntStream;

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int num = 5;
        System.out.printf("Factorial of %d = %d", num, factorial(num));

    public static long factorial(int num) {
        return IntStream.rangeClosed(1, num).reduce(1, (x, y) -> x * y);

Factorial and BigInteger Class

To calculate factorials for larger numbers, Java’s BigInteger class comes in handy.

import java.math.BigInteger;

public class Main {
    static BigInteger factorial(int N) {
        BigInteger f = new BigInteger("1"); 
        for (int i = 2; i <= N; i  ) 
            f = f.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(i)); 
        return f; 
    public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception { 
        int N = 20; 

Factorial in Multi-threaded Environment

Java’s Fork/Join Framework allows factorial calculations to be executed in a multi-threaded environment.

import java.util.concurrent.RecursiveTask;

public class FactorialTask extends RecursiveTask<Integer> {
    private final int n;

    public FactorialTask(int n) {
        this.n = n;

    protected Integer compute() {
        if (n <= 1) {
            return 1;
        } else {
            FactorialTask subtask = new FactorialTask(n - 1);
            return n * subtask.join();


Becoming adept at factorial calculations in Java is a stepping stone towards understanding and implementing more complex algorithms and data structures. Java provides a plethora of approaches to perform this operation, catering to various programming styles and requirements.

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